Abstract: Main objective of wireless communication system is the design of wideband, multiband low profile small antenna. A fractal antenna effectively utilizes the available space within a sphere of radius ‘r’ which improves the bandwidth of the antenna enclosed in the sphere . The term fractal refers to miniaturized structure which stands for irregular or broken pieces. Several natural phenomenons like trees, mountains etc. shows fractal nature. The fractal concepts are used in antenna theory and design and there are many studies and implementation of fractal antenna elements and arrays. This paper brings a comparison of different shrinking methods on antenna size based on fractal geometry while maintaining performance parameters. This paper presents a survey on fractal antennas designed with different geometric structures, its iteration process, radiation parameters etc. Which are used for wireless applications.
Keywords: Fractal Geometry, Sierpinski gasket, Koch Fractal, Hilbert Curve.